Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a highly controlled thin film deposition method, in which a film is grown on a substrate by exposing its surface to alternate gaseous species (typically referred to as precursors).
Typical substrate size and type:
- 50-200 mm single wafers
- 156 mm x 156 mm solar Si wafers
Typical thin film materials
- Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, Ta2O5, HfO2, ZnO, ZrO2
- Liquid, solid, gas, ozone, plasma