Lead in the form of airborne powders are known to have long lasting health implications when exposure surpasses certain limits. Recent studies have drawn a link between blood lead levels and diseases leading to mortality in humans. Several institutes of health and safety have revised its admissible blood lead levels to levels well below to what has been established in previous decades to reflect the results of these recent studies. Because it is not clear what the health implications are of lead that is processed in the context of perovskite research and no organization has published specific directives, KSC has established a set of instructions within its standard operation procedures for lead safety in our labs. Moreover, new KSC lab users are instructed to take an online training and successfully pass a quiz before given access to the labs. We believe that this material provides best practices for handling lead based materials and that it can be adopted by any lab working on perovskite-based research. The material is made available here together with relevant literature.
(1) Michael Salvador; Christopher E. Motter; Iain McCulloch, Hidden Perils of Lead in the Lab: Guidelines for Containing, Monitoring, and Decontaminating Lead in the Context of Perovskite Research, Chem. Mater. 2020.
(2) Tchounwou, P. B.; Yedjou, C. G.; Patlolla, A. K.; Sutton, D. J. Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology, Volume 3: Environmental Toxicology. 2012, 133–164.
(3) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead. 2019.
(4) National Toxicology Program Monograph. Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. 2012. Available: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/lead/final/monographhealtheffectslowlevellead_newissn_508.pdf
(5) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. 2017. Available: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/lead/docs/CSEM-Lead_toxicity_508.pdf
(6) Lanphear, B. P.; Rauch, S.; Auinger, P.; Allen, R. W.; Hornung, R. W. Low-Level Lead Exposure and Mortality in US Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Lancet Public Health, 2018, 3 (4), e177–e184. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/s2468-2667(18)30025-2
(7) Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC). Medical Management Guidelines for Lead-Exposed Adults. 2007. Available: http://www.aoec.org/documents/positions/MMG_FINAL.pdf
(8) Kosnett, M. J.; Wedeen, R. P.; Rothenberg, S. J.; Hipkins, K. L.; Materna, B. L.; Schwartz, B. S.; Hu, H.; Woolf, A. Recommendations for Medical Management of Adult Lead Exposure. Environ. Health Persp., 2007, 115 (3), 463–471. Available: https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9784 .
(9) The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ables/description.html