D. Ratan, O.M. Bakr and E.H. Sargent
Energy and Environmental Science, 4, 4870-4881, (2011)
Deployed solar cells today are predominantly first-generation devices based on silicon. Single-crystal materials offer the advantage of high efficiency, but costs associated with materials, manufacturing, and installation remain high. Second generation, or thin-film, technologies, such as those based on CdTe and CuInGaSe2 , offer dramatically improved costs per square meter, but at the price of lower efficiencies.