R. Bose, A. Bera, M.R. Parida, A. Adhikari, B.S. Shaheen, E. Alarousu, J. Sun, T. Wu, O.M. Bakr, O.F. Mohammed
Nano Letters, 16 (7), pp 4417-4423, (2016)
4D scanning ultrafast electron microscopy; charge carrier dynamics; CIGSe; semiconductor nanocrystals; shelling; surface traps
Surface trap states in copper indium gallium selenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), which serve as undesirable channels for nonradiative carrier recombination, remain a great challenge impeding the development of solar and optoelectronics devices based on these NCs. In order to design efficient passivation techniques to minimize these trap states, a precise knowledge about the charge carrier dynamics on the NCs surface is essential. However, selective mapping of surface traps requires capabilities beyond the reach of conventional laser spectroscopy and static electron microscopy; it can only be accessed by using a one-of-a-kind, second-generation four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscope (4D S-UEM) with subpicosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolutions. Here, we precisely map the collective surface charge carrier dynamics of copper indium gallium selenide NCs as a function of the surface trap states before and after surface passivation in real space and time using S-UEM. The time-resolved snapshots clearly demonstrate that the density of the trap states is significantly reduced after zinc sulfide (ZnS) shelling. Furthermore, the removal of trap states and elongation of carrier lifetime are confirmed by the increased photocurrent of the self-biased photodetector fabricated using the shelled NCs.