A.E. Mansour, A.R. Kirmani, S. Barlow, S.R. Marder, A. Amassian
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9 (23), pp 2002020028, (2017)
Electrical transport, Few-layer graphene, Intercalation, Molecular doping, Transparent conducting electrode, Work function
Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal−)organic molecules and intercalation of smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multimodal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable increase in the work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic applications.