Introducing a Nonvolatile N‐Type Dopant Drastically Improves Electron Transport in Polymer and Small‐Molecule Organic Transistors.

J. Panidi, J. Kainth, A.F. Paterson, S. Wang, L. Tsetseris, A.‐H. Emwas, M.A. McLachlan, M. Heeney, T.D. Anthopoulos
Adv. Funct. Mater, (2019)

Introducing a Nonvolatile N‐Type Dopant Drastically Improves Electron Transport in Polymer and Small‐Molecule Organic Transistors.

Keywords

Electron transpot, Molecular doping

Abstract

​Molecular doping is a powerful yet challenging technique for enhancing charge transport in organic semiconductors (OSCs). While there is a wealth of research on p‐type dopants, work on their n‐type counterparts is comparatively limited. Here, reported is the previously unexplored n‐dopant (12a,18a)‐5,6,12,12a,13,18,18a,19‐octahydro‐5,6‐dimethyl‐ 13,18[1′,2′]‐benzenobisbenzimidazo [1,2‐b:2′,1′‐d]benzo[i][2.5]benzodiazo‐cine potassium triflate adduct (DMBI‐BDZC) and its application in organic thin‐film transistors (OTFTs). Two different high electron mobility OSCs, namely, the polymer poly[[N,N′‐bis(2‐octyldodecyl)‐naphthalene‐1,4,5,8‐ bis(dicarboximide)‐2,6‐diyl]‐alt‐5,5′‐(2′‐bithiophene)] and a small‐molecule naphthalene diimides fused with 2‐(1,3‐dithiol‐2‐ylidene)malononitrile groups (NDI‐DTYM2) are used to study the effectiveness of DMBI‐BDZC as a n‐dopant. N‐doping of both semiconductors results in OTFTs with improved electron mobility (up to 1.1 cm2 V−1 s−1), reduced threshold voltage and lower contact resistance. The impact of DMBI‐BDZC incorporation is particularly evident in the temperature dependence of the electron transport, where a significant reduction in the activation energy due to trap deactivation is observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements support the n‐doping activity of DMBI‐BDZC in both semiconductors. This finding is corroborated by density functional theory calculations, which highlights ground‐state electron transfer as the main doping mechanism. The work highlights DMBI‐BDZC as a promising n‐type molecular dopant for OSCs and its application in OTFTs, solar cells, photodetectors, and thermoelectrics.

Code

DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201902784

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